Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

2018 Edition
| Editors: William M. White

Chromium

  • Monica VasiliuEmail author
  • David A. Dixon
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39312-4_59

Element Data

Atomic Symbol: Cr.

Atomic Number: 24.

Atomic Weight: 51.9961.

Isotopes and Abundances: 50Cr 4.35%, 52Cr 83.79%, 53Cr 9.50%, 54Cr 2.36%.

1 Atm Melting Point: 2130 ± 20 K.

1 Atm Boiling Point: 2945.

Common Valences: 2, 3, 4, 6.

Ionic Radii: (+II) 84, (+III) 64, (+IV) 56, (+VI) 44 ppm.

Pauling Electronegativity: 1.66.

First Ionization Potential: 6.76 eV.

Chondritic (CI) Abundance: 2660 ppm.

Silicate Earth Abundance: 2625 ppm.

Crustal Abundance: ~100 ppm.

Seawater Abundance: 0.2 ppb.

Core Abundance: 0.90%.

Properties

Chromium (Emsley 1991, 2001; Anthoni 2006; Anders and Grevesse 1989; McDonough 2005) is a lustrous, brittle, hard, and very corrosion-resistant metal. It has a silver-gray color with a blue tinge and it can be highly polished. It does not tarnish in air, but when heated it burns forming the green chromic oxide. Chromium is unstable in oxygen as it immediately reacts to form a thin oxide layer that is impermeable to oxygen and protects the metal below. Chromium...

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References

  1. Anders E, Grevesse N (1989) Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53:197–214. http://meteorites.wustl.edu/goodstuff/chondritic_abundances.htmCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anthoni JF (2006) The chemical composition of seawater in. http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/seawater.htm
  3. Emsley J (1991) The elements, 2nd edn. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Emsley J (2001) Nature’s building blocks an A-Z guide to the elements. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. McDonough WF (2005) Compositional model for the Earth’s core. In: Carlson RW (ed) The Mantle and Core. Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 547–568. http://www.knowledgedoor.com/2/elements_handbook/element_abundances_in_the_earth_s_core.htmlCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Vincent JB (2013) The bioinorganic chemistry of chromium. Wiley, Chichester, p 1213Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA