Skip to main content

Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules: Rocks That Grow

Part of the Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series book series (EESS)

Synonyms

Cobalt crusts; Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts; Fe-Mn crusts; Fe-Mn nodules; Ferromanganese crusts; Ferromanganese nodules; Iron-manganese crusts; Iron-manganese nodules; Polymetallic crusts; Polymetallic nodules

Definition

Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts and nodules are marine sedimentary mineral deposits, composed mostly of iron and manganese oxides. They precipitate very slowly from seawater, or for nodules also from deep-sea sediment pore waters, recording the chemical signature of these source waters as they grow. Additional elements incorporate via sorption processes onto the Fe-Mn oxides, including rare and valuable metals that can reach concentrations that are economically valuable.

Introduction

Fe-Mn crusts and nodules occur throughout the global ocean, from the flanks of seamounts to the abyssal plains of the deep ocean. Unique compared to other marine rocks, Fe-Mn mineral deposits actually grow over time. They grow extremely slowly by precipitation of metals from...

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-39312-4_101
  • Chapter length: 7 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   549.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-39312-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   699.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules: Rocks That Grow, Fig. 1
Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules: Rocks That Grow, Fig. 2

References

  • Halbach P, Friedrich G, von Stackelberg U (eds) (1988) The manganese nodule belt of the Pacific Ocean – geological environment nodule formation, and mining aspects. F. Enke, Stuttgart, p 254

    Google Scholar 

  • Hein JR, Conrad TA, Dunham RE (2009) Seamount characteristics and mine-site model applied to exploration- and mining-lease-block selection for cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts. Mar Georesour Geotechnol 27:160–176

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hein JR, Koschinsky A (2014) Deep-ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules, Chap. 11. In: Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds) Treatise on geochemistry, vol 13. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 273–291

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hein JR, Mizell K, Koschinsky A, Conrad TA (2013) Deep-ocean mineral deposits as a source of critical metals for high- and green-technology applications: comparison with land-based resources. Ore Geol Rev 51:1–14

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hein JR, Spinardi F, Okamoto N, Mizell K, Thorburn D, Tawake A (2015) Critical metals in manganese nodules from the Cook Islands EEZ, abundances and distributions. Ore Geol Rev 68:97–116

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • ISA (2010) A geological model of polymetallic nodule deposits in the clarion-Clipperton fracture zone, ISA technical study, vol 6. International Seabed Authority, Kingston, p 105

    Google Scholar 

  • JICA/MMAJ (2001) Report on the cooperative study project of the Deep Sea mineral resources in selected offshore area of the SOPAC region, vol 1: sea area of the Cook Islands. Japan International Cooperation Agency and Metal Mining Agency of Japan, p 322

    Google Scholar 

  • Klemm V, Levasseur S, Frank M, Hein JR, Halliday AN (2005) Osmium isotope stratigraphy of a ferromanganese crust. Earth Planet Sci Lett 238:42–48

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Koschinsky A, Hein JR (2003) Uptake of elements from seawater by ferromanganese crusts: solid phase association and seawater speciation. Mar Geol 198:331–351

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen SG, Mar-Gerrison S, Gannoun A, LaRowe D, Klemm V, Halliday AN, Burton KW, Hein JR (2009) Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene. Earth Planet Sci Lett 278:297–307

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Post JE (1999) Manganese oxide minerals: crystal structures and economic and environmental significance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(Colloquium Paper):3447–3454

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sudhakar M (1989) Ore grade manganese nodules from the central Indian Basin: an evaluation. Mar Min 8:201–214

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Geological Survey (2009) Mineral commodity summaries 2009. U.S. Geological Survey. 195 p

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Geological Survey (2013) Mineral commodity summaries 2013. U.S. Geological Survey. 198 p

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kira Mizell .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

About this entry

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this entry

Mizell, K., Hein, J.R. (2018). Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules: Rocks That Grow. In: White, W.M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39312-4_101

Download citation