Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

Living Edition
| Editors: William M. White

Anthropogenic CO2

  • Klaus S. Lackner
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39193-9_157-1



Carbon dioxide, generated by human activities, that enters the natural carbon cycle (usually through the atmosphere).

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide, chemical formula CO2, is produced in the chemical conversion of various carbon bearing compounds or by releasing CO2 from geological reservoirs that without human interference would have remained isolated from the more mobile carbon pools in the atmosphere, the ocean, and the biosphere.

Sources of Anthropogenic CO2

Generation of anthropogenic CO 2 began with the introduction of fire and the combustion of biomass, which mainly produces CO 2 and H 2O. Until the industrial revolution, anthropogenic CO 2 production remained small compared to the natural carbon cycle and was essentially balanced by the uptake of CO 2by plants. For biomass to be burned, it first has to grow. The carbon balance was more seriously upset with the introduction of coal as an important...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Archer D et al (2009) Atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel carbon dioxide. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 37:117–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arts RJ et al (2008) Ten years’ experience of monitoring CO2 injection in the Utsira Sand at Sleipner, offshore Norway. First Break 26(1):65Google Scholar
  3. Christianson GE (2000) Greenhouse: the 200 year story of global warming. Penguin Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Ciais P, Sabine C, Bala G, Bopp L, Brovkin V, Canadell J, Chhabra A, DeFries R, Galloway J, Heimann M, Jones C, Le Quéré C, Myneni RB, Piao S, Thornton P (2013) Carbon and other biogeochemical cycles. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Fischedick M, Roy J, Abdel-Aziz A, Acquaye A, Allwood JM, Ceron J-P, Geng Y, Kheshgi H, Lanza A, Perczyk D, Price L, Santalla E, Sheinbaum C, Tanaka K (2014) Chapter 10 industry. In: Edenhofer O, Pichs-Madruga R, Sokona Y, Farahani E, Kadner S, Seyboth K, Adler A, Baum I, Brunner S, Eickemeier P, Kriemann B, Savolainen J, Schlömer S, von Stechow C, Zwickel T, Minx JC (eds) Climate change 2014: mitigation of climate change. Contribution of working group III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Hansen J, Kharecha P, Sato M, Masson-Delmotte V, Ackerman F, Beerling DJ, Hearty PJ, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Hsu SL, Parmesan C, Rockstrom J (2013) Assessing “dangerous climate change”: required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature. PLoS One 8(12):e81648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. IPCC (2005) In: Metz B, Davidson O, de Coninck H, Loos M, Meyer L (eds). IPCC special report: Carbon dioxide capture and storage. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 431Google Scholar
  8. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change [Core Writing Team, RK Pachauri, LA Meyer (eds)]. IPCC, Geneva, 151 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Lackner KS (2014) The use of artificial trees. Issues Environ Sci Technol 38(2014):80–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lackner KS et al (1995) Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals. Energy 20(11):1153–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. MacDougall AH (2015) The transient response to cumulative CO2 emissions: a review. Curr Clim Change Rep 2:39–47.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-015-0030-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Marchetti C (1977) On geoengineering and the CO2 problem. Clim Chang 1(1):59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Solomon S, Plattner GK, Knutti R, Friedlingstein P (2009) Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(6):1704–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. van Oost HG (2016) Cement, USGS minerals information. In: Mineral commodity summaries. http://minerals.usgs.gov

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built EnvironmentArizona State UniversityTempeUSA