A paleotemperature is the temperature of a location, either on land or in the ocean, at a specific time in the geologic past. Scientists use paleothermometers to reconstruct past temperature records from archives – natural features of the Earth that preserve clues about past climate and environmental change. Examples of archives include marine and lacustrine sediment, glacial ice, and corals. Paleothermometers are often referred to as temperature proxies , which are measurable physical, geological, geochemical, or biological characteristics that get preserved in archives, standing in for instrumental measurements. Each proxy is associated with a calibration that transforms the proxy measurements into the parameter of interest, which in this case is temperature.
Scientists rely on proxy measurements from archives because direct observations of temperature extend back only as far as the middle of the nineteenth century (Smith et al. 2008). Direct temperature measurements of...
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