Oral-Related Disorders

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


The prevalence of awake bruxism is about 20% among the adult population and that of sleep bruxism is 8% of the population. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) characterise a number of disorders often painful with different causes resulting in dysfunction of joint and/or muscles of mastication. Myofascial pain is estimated that about 25% of the entire population have internal derangement and is usually treated with non-surgical methods. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is characterised by exposure and necrosis of areas of the jaw. The true incidence of ONJ in patients on bisphosphonates (BP) is not known. This review discusses the mechanisms and management of some of the related oral disorders such as bruxism, temporomandibular dysfunction, myofascial pain and osteonecrosis of the jaw.


Awake bruxism Sleep bruxism Temporomandibular disorders Myofascial pain Osteonecrosis of the jaw 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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