Oral Manifestations of Systemic Disease

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


Many systemic diseases have oral manifestations and they must be recognised. This review will summarise the oral manifestations in the main groups of system diseases such as connective tissue, nutritional, haematological and gastrointestinal disorders and drugs.


Systemic diseases Oral manifestations Connective tissue disorders Vitamin deficiencies 


  1. 1.
    Mayes MD, Lacey JU, Beebee-Dimmer J, Gillespie BW, Cooper B, Laing TJ, et al. Prevalence incidence survival and disease characteristics of systemic sclerosis in a large US population. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48: 246–55.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hugle T, Schuetz P, Daikeler T, Tyndall A, Matucci-Cerinic M, Walker UA, et al. Late-onset systemic sclerosis-a systematic survey of the EULAR scleroderma trials and research group data base. Rheumatology. 2011;50(1):161–165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bryan C, Knight C, Black CM, Silman AJ. Prediction of 5-year survival following presentation of scleroderma development of a simple model using three disease factors at first visit. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42: 2660–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Derk CT, Artlett CM, Jemencz SA. Mortality and morbidity of patients diagnosed with systemic sclerosis after the age of 75: a vested case control study. Clin Rheumatol. 2006;25:831–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rovensky J, Tuchynova. Systemic lupus erythematosus in the elderly. Autoimmun Rev. 2008;7(3):235–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lazaro D. Elderly-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: Prevalence Clinical course and treatment. Drugs Aging. 2007;24(9):701–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnaud L, Mathian A, Boddaert J, Amoura Z. Late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: epidemiology diagnosis and treatment. Drugs Aging. 2012;29(3):181–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hashimi AC. Xerostomia secondary to Sjogren’s syndrome in the elderly: recognition and management. Drugs Aging. 2005;22(11):887–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yung RL, Francis S. Sjogren’s syndrome in the elderly. Chap29 in Y Nakasaki and RL Yung (eds). Geriatric Rheumatology: A comprehensive approach. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Adeyemo TA, Adeyemo WL, Adederan A, Akinbami AJA, Akannu AS. Orofacial manifestations of haematological disorders: Anaemia and haemostatic disorders. Ind J Dental Res. 2011;22(3):454–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chi AC, Neville BW, Krayer JW, Gonsalves WC. Oral manifestations of systemic disease. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82(11):1381–1388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Daley TD, Armstrong JE. Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases. Can J Gastrointestinal. 2007;21(4):241–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Plauth M, Jense H, Meyle J. Oral manifestations of Crohn’s disease. An analysis of 79 cases. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991;13(1);29–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lankarani KB, Sivandzadeh GR, Hassanpour S. Oral manifestation in inflammatory bowel disease: A review World J Gastrenterol. 2013;19(46);8571–8579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Casiglia JM, Mirowski GW. Oral manifestations of systemic disease. updated 15 Jan 2009.
  16. 16.
    Kalmer J. Oral manifestations of drug reactions., updated Oct 19,2006. Chalmers JM. Geriatric oral health issues in Australia. Int Dent J. 2001;51:188–99.
  17. 17.
    Kinane DF, Marshall GJ. Periodontal manifestations of systemic diease. Aust Dent J. 2001;45(1):2–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Amar S, Han X. Te impact of periodontal infection on systemic diseases. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9(12):RA291–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anil S, Al-Ghamdi HS. The impact of periodontal infections on systemic diseases. An update for medical practitioners. Saudi Med J. 2006;27(6):767–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Babu NC, Gomes AJ. Systemic manifestations of oral disease. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2011;15(2):144–147.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Amanat D, Zahed M. diseases: a Review. https://www.researchgare.nrt/publication/257136828_Oral_Manifeststion-of_Systemic_Diseases_a_Review. Accessed 17 January 2027.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

Personalised recommendations