• Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


Tinnitus is common in the elderly, and its prevalence increases with age. In the elderly, it is most commonly associated with hearing loss. The exact underlying cause of tinnitus is not fully understood. The evaluation of tinnitus follows similar lines to that of hearing loss. Modifiable factors that may exacerbate tinnitus should be identified and treated accordingly, for instance, certain medications such as aspirin, NSAIDs and quinine, and ceasing the drug may be reasonable. The chapter reviews the causes and evaluation management of tinnitus.


Tinnitus Subjective tinnitus Objective tinnitus Behavioural and combined therapies Tinnitus retraining therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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