Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


TIA frequency increases with age reaching 10.2% in males and 7.4% in females and decreased in subjects of both sexes aged 85 years or over. The symptoms of TIA vary widely depending on the area of the brain involved. Medical history of specific symptoms and thorough neurological and cardiovascular examinations provide the most important information to diagnose a TIA. TIA poses considerable difficulty in diagnosis, and diagnostic uncertainty is common. Patients presenting with TIA or minor stroke are at high risk of early stroke up to 10% in the first 48 h. Current international guidelines have adopted the ABCD2 score in risk stratification of patients with TIA. For a new-onset TIA patient, an ABCD2 can be a guide in the management.


Transient ischaemic attack Carotid artery stenosis Embolism Transient monocular blindness ABCD2 scores 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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