Mood Disorders (Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder)

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


Depression is the most common disorder in individuals 65 years and older. Late-onset depression develops as a result of complex interactions of risk factors such as age-associated neurobiological changes, stressful events, a higher interaction with cognitive decline and impaired effect of genes. The ‘vascular hypothesis’ is upheld by co-morbidity of depression, vascular risk factors, vascular disease and the association with ischaemic lesions to characteristic behavioural symptoms. More lately there has been considerable move towards embodying structural brain changes and cerebrovascular pathology in the frontal, subcortical and medial temporal structures. Mania usually occurs as a phase of manic-depressive disorder, but it can occur in association with medical and pharmacological states. This review will give an update on recent advances on the pathophysiology of mood disorders and their clinical management in the elderly.


Depression Late-onset depression ‘Vascular hypothesis’ Mania Manic-depressive disorder 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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