Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BSPD) and Management

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


The behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BSPD) could be intrinsic to the disorder or occur across multiple diagnoses, for example, in primary psychiatric illness, chronic alcoholism, cerebral disorder (cerebral infarction), cerebrovascular disease, cerebral tumour and normal pressure hydrocephalus. The relationship between dementia and dementia-related behaviours remains unclear. There is a marked variation in their occurrence. Neurotransmitter abnormalities have been associated with behavioural symptoms. Most behavioural disturbances are possibly associated with the degree of dementia. Dementing disorders are accompanied by dangerous, disruptive, distressing and disturbing behaviours. BPSD consists of many symptoms, and they often occur in symptom clusters and recognized as subsyndromes or subsyndromal clusters. This review provides an overview of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia and their clinical management.


Behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia Neurotransmitter abnormalities Subsyndromes or subsyndromal clusters Cholinesterase inhibitors Antipsychotics 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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