Systemic Sclerosis (SSc)

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


Epidemiological studies have underscored the incidence of SSc in the sixth, seventh and eighth decades of life. The pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterised by immune and endothelial activation, vascular dysfunction and overproduction of extracellular matrix. The late onset is clinically and immunologically different from the early onset. There are two subsets of SSc, diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) which is associated with progressive fibrosis of skin and internal organs and the other limited cutaneous.


Systemic sclerosis Late onset Early onset Diffuse cutaneous Diffuse cutaneous CREST syndrome 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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