Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


The review provides an overview of the prevalence and mechanisms, with the main focus on age at onset. One-third of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis have their first symptom after the age of 60 years. In the elderly, RA takes two forms: (i) continuing into old age with younger-onset RA (YORA) and (ii) elderly-onset RA (EORA). Clinical emphasis is placed on these differences, for failure to recognise them may result in delay in diagnosis and treatment.


Rheumatoid arthritis Elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) Young-onset rheumatoid arthritis (YORA) Anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody) Biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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