Peripheral Arterial Disease

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


This review provides an overview of peripheral arterial disease, the prevalence and mechanisms followed by management. The prevalence of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) on average is about 5% at around 60 years of age. Atherosclerosis is by far the commonest pathological feature of PAD and accounts for more than 80% of PAD. The clinical manifestations of occlusive PAD are the result of ischaemia of the tissues supplied by the affected arteries and the character of pain related to the severity of the occlusion. The diagnosis in most instances can be confirmed by measuring the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Arterial duplex ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography, segmental arterial pressure and digital subtraction angiography are useful in locating lesions in PAD. The scientific evidence strongly supports aggressive management of not only symptomatic atherosclerotic disease in terms of lifestyle intervention, lowering blood pressure, lowering lipids and controlling diabetes but also the management of individuals with high multifactorial risks.


Peripheral arterial disease Atherosclerosis Rest pain Nocturnal pain Intermittent claudication Ankle-brachial index (ABI) 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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