• Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common age-related joint disease throughout the world and symptomatic OA is a leading cause of disability among elders. Currently, there is increasing realization that OA affects all the joint tissues. These include the synovium, meniscal pathology, bone marrow lesions, and subchondral bone. OA was thought to be a noninflammatory condition, but now it is evident that this is not so and there is evidence linking local inflammation with pain measured as synovitis/effusion. The present review will highlight the causation and pathogenesis of the disease.


Osteoarthritis Cartilage Bone marrow lesions Meniscal pathology Rhizarthrosis Secondary osteoarthritis 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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