Disorders of Sodium

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


The elderly are more prone to disorders of sodium metabolism because of the age-related decrease in the percentage of body water content because smaller distribution of water balance will give rise to greater change in serum sodium concentration. About 11.3% of geriatric patients are hyponatraemic. Hypernatraemia is less common than hyponatraemia but with a high mortality of 40–60%. The chapter discusses the mechanisms underlying the disorders of sodium metabolism, their clinical manifestations and management.


Chronic hyponatraemia Hypernatraemia Aldosterone Antidiuretic hormone/arginine vasopressin Antidiuretic hormone 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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