• Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


There is no one cause of osteoporosis, but a myriad of factors contribute to loss of bone, especially with aging in both men and women. Those with a family history of fractures or osteoporosis are at an increased risk, and the inheritability ranges from 25% to 80% for both fractures and for low bone mineral density. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has exceptional precision [8] or bone densitometry (BMD) are now available. Minimal trauma fractures (MTF) should be investigated for osteoporosis. It is recommended that vitamin D status be determined. Screening for secondary osteoporosis has yet to be proved to be cost-effective. It is recommended that vitamin D status be determined. Screening for secondary osteoporosis has yet to be proved to be cost-effective. Currently, the biphosphonates and denosumab are the mainstay of osteoporosis therapy [24] and biphosphonates orally or intravenously should be the first line of therapy especially in older patients [52]. This chapter will provide an update on the clinical management.


Osteoporosis Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) Minimal trauma fractures (MTF) Vitamin D status Biphosphonates 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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