Advertisement

Multisystem Atrophy (MSA)

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry

Abstract

MSA can cause combinations of Parkinsonism, autonomic, pyramidal and cerebellar symptoms. MSA-A is now the term used for Shy-Drager syndrome, MSA-C if cerebellar symptoms predominate and MSA-P if Parkinsonian features predominate. The aetiology is uncertain although recently it has been attributed to a human prion composed of the alpha-synuclein protein. This chapter gives a concise account of the demographic, clinical characteristics and management of the disease.

Keywords

Multiple system antrophy Parkinsonism Shy-Drager syndrome Autonomic dysfunction Antecolis Myotonic jerks 

References

  1. 1.
    Hain TC. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA),. http://www.dizziness-and-balance.com/disorders/central/movement/msa.html accessed on 10 May 2016.
  2. 2.
    Ben-ShlomoY, Wening GK, Tison F, Quinn NP. Survival of patients with pathologically proven multiple system atrophy. A meta analysis. Neurology. 1997;48:384–39.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Best C. MSA Management strategies. EPNN Journal Winter 2007.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Quinn NP, Marsden CD. The motor disorder of multiple system atrophy/ Editorial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993;56 1239–1242.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Papapetropoulos S, Thchman A, Laufer D, Papatsoris AG, Papapetropoulos N, Mash DC. Causes of death in multisystem atrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006; 78(2):327–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tada M, Onodera O, Tada M, Ozawa T, PiaoY, Kakita A, et al. Early development of autonomic dysfunction predict poor prognosis in patients with multisystem atrophy. Arch Neurol. 2007;64(2):256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Watanabe H, Saito Y, Terao S, Ando T, Kachi T, Mukai E, et al. Progression and prognosis in Multisystem atrophy: an analysis of 230 Japanese patients. Brain. 2002;125(Pt 5):1070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee PH, Kim JW, Bang OY, Ahn YH, Joo IS, HuhK. Autologous mesenchymal stem cell therapy delay the progression of neurological deficits. Clin Pharmacol Therapeutics. 2000;83:723–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stefanova N, Bucke P, Duerr S, Wenng GK. Multiple system atrophy: an update .Lancet Neurol. 2009;8(12):1172–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goldstein DS, Holme S, Li ST, Bruce S, Metman LV.Cannon RO 3rd. Cardiac sympathetic denervation in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:338–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

Personalised recommendations