Multisystem Atrophy (MSA)

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


MSA can cause combinations of Parkinsonism, autonomic, pyramidal and cerebellar symptoms. MSA-A is now the term used for Shy-Drager syndrome, MSA-C if cerebellar symptoms predominate and MSA-P if Parkinsonian features predominate. The aetiology is uncertain although recently it has been attributed to a human prion composed of the alpha-synuclein protein. This chapter gives a concise account of the demographic, clinical characteristics and management of the disease.


Multiple system antrophy Parkinsonism Shy-Drager syndrome Autonomic dysfunction Antecolis Myotonic jerks 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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