Advertisement

Prostate Gland and Related Disorders

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry

Abstract

The transition zone of the prostate enlarges with age by developing benign prostatic hypertrophy, and the proliferative process occurs exclusively in the transition zone and periurethral glands. Benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) is a common part of ageing, and by the age of 80 years, about 90% of the men will have histological evidence of BPH. The diagnosis is based on the history followed by digital rectal examination (DRE) which is an integral part in the evaluation. Prostatitis is an inflammatory disorder, bacterial or nonbacterial and can be acute or chronic. Prostatic abscess is a focal accumulation of pus within the prostate. Carcinoma of the prostate is the commonest malignancy among elderly men affecting 30% of men at the age of 50 and 90% at the age of 90 years. The review summarises the main group of prostate disorders with the main focus on the management.

Keywords

Benign prostatic hypertrophy Prostatitis Prostatic abscess Carcinoma of the prostate 

References

  1. 1.
    Weerakkody Y, Maingard J. Prostate. http://radiopaedia.org/artcles/prostate. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  2. 2.
    Canadian Cancer Society. Anatomy and physiology of the prostate. http://www.cancerca/en/cancer information/cancer-type/prostate/anatomyandphysiology.?region+on retrieved on 26 Januart 2015.
  3. 3.
    Villiers GM, Verstraete K, De Neve WJ, Meerleer GO. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the prostate and the periprostatic area: a guide for radiotherapists. Radiother Oncol 2005;76(1):99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lepor H. Pathophysiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the aging male population. Rev Urol. 2005;7(Suppl4):S3–S12.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    McNeal JE. The prostate gland. Morphology, pathobiology. Monogr Urol. 1983;4:5–13.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berry SJ, Coffey DS, Walsh PC, Ewing LL. The development of human prostatic hyperplasia with age. J Urol. 1984;132:474–479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levelliee RJ, Patel VR, Bird VG. Prostate hypertrophy Benign. E Medicine Update. 2006.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lepor H. Pathogenesis, epidemiology and natural history of benign prostate hypertrophy. Rev Urology. 2004;6(suppl 9): S3–S10.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walsh PC, Madder JD, Harrod M. Familial incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism type 2: decreased dehydrotestosterone formation in pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias. NEJM 1974;291:944–949.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diamond DA. Sexual differentiation normal and abnormal in :Walsk PC, Retik AB, Vaughan ED Jr, Wein AJ. Editors Campells Urology 8th ed. Philadelphia PA: WB Saunders Co. 2002 pp 2395–2527.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Caine M. The present role of alpha-adrenergic blockers in the treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy. J Urol. 1986;136:1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Editor’s summary of meeting presentation in Lepor H. Pathophysiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the aging male population. Rev Urol. 2005;7(Suppl4):S3–S12.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    National Cancer Institute PSA &DRE. http://www.cancer.gov/cacertopics/facts/sheet/detection/PSA. Retrieved 12/7/2013.
  14. 14.
    Thompson IM, Parker DR, Goodmam PT, et al. Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with prostate – specific antigen level< or= 4.0ng per millilitre. NEJM. 2004;358(28):2239–2246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones JS, Klein E. Four no more. The PSA cut off ‘era’ is over. Clev Clin J Med. 2008;(1):75:30–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones JS, Patel A, Schoenfield L, Rabets JC, Zippe CD, Magi-Galluzzi C. Saturation technique does not improve cancer detection as in initial prostate biopsy strategy.Urol. 2006;175:485–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gann PH. Risk factors for possible prostate cancer. Rev Urol.2002;14(suppl 5):S3–S70.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kolonel LN. Fat meat and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;23:72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barry MJ, O’Leary MP. The development and clinical utility of symptom scores. Urol Clin N Am. 1995;22:229–307.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Americal Urological Association. AUA Prostate symptom Score. Website: http://individual.utoronto.ca/mgreiver/prostate.htm accessed 9/3/2008.
  21. 21.
    McConnell JD, Brukewitz R, Walsh PC, Andriole G, Lieber M, Holtgrewe HL, et al. The effect of finasteride in the risk of acute urinary retention and the need for surgical treatment among men with benign prostate hypertrophy. Finasteride Long Term Efficacy and Safety study Group. NEJM. 1998;338:5570563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Roehrborn CG, Marks LS, Fenter T, Freedman S, Tuttle J, Gittleman, et al. Efficiency and safety of dutasteride in the 4-year period of men with benign prostatic hypertrophy. Urology. 2001;63:709–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krieger JN. Classification, epidemiology and implications of chronic prostatitis in North America, Europe and Asia. Minnerva Urol Nephrol. 2004;56:99–107.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roberts RO, Lieber MM, Rhodes T, Girman CJ, Bostwick DG, Jacobsen SJ. Prevalence of a physician-assigned diagnosis of prostatitis: The Olmstead County Study of urinary symptoms and health status among men. Urology. 1998;51:578–584.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krieger JN, Nybeigh Jr, Nickel JC. National Institute of Health consensus definition and classification of prostatitis. JAMA. 1999;282:236–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    de la Rosette JJ, Hubregtse MR, Meuleman EJ, Stolk-Engelaar MV, Debruyne FM. Diagnosis and treatment of 409 patients with prostatitis syndrome. Urology. 1993;41(4):301–307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ramakrishnan K, Salinas RC. Prostatitis acute and chronic. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2010:37(3):547–563.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maitre S. Prostatitis: Prevalence classification and treatment. Virtual Mentor. 2006’8(11):748–751.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hua VN, Schaeffer AJ. Acute and chronic prostatitis. Med Clin North Am 2004;88:483–494.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Andriole GL. Prostatitis. The Merck Manual. Professional Edition. http://www.merckmanuals.com/ptofessional/geitourinary_disorders/benign-prostate. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  31. 31.
    Anothaisintawee T, Attin J, Nickel JC, Thammakraisom S, Numthava JP, McEvoy M, et al. Management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain. JAMA. 2011;305(1):78–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Faris G, Metz Y, Friedman B, Appel B, Stein A. Prostatic abscess –diagnosis and treatment. Harefuah 2008;147(7):5946,663.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Venyo A, Prostatic abscess: Case Report and review of literature. Webmed Central Urology 2011;2(11)WMC 002433.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oliveira P, Andrade JA, Porto JE, Pereira Filho JE, Vinhaes AF. Diagnosis and treatment of prostatic abscess. Int Braz J Urol 2003;29:30–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dalal S, Sahu MS, Nityasha I, Dahiya RS. Prostatic abscess: easy to diagnose difficult to treat. Int J Surg. 2009;23(2).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bansal P, Gupta A, Mongha R, Bera M, Ranjit K, Kunda AK. Minimally – invasive management of prostatic abscess. The role of transrectal ultrasound. Urol Ann. 2009;1:56–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grandios EA, Caffaralti J, Farina L, Hoesman H. Prostatic abscess drainage clinical-sonography correlation. Urol Int. 1992;48:358–61.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jameson RM. Prostatic abscess, carcinoma of the prostate. Br J Urol. 1968;40:288–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Trauzzi SJ, Kay CJ, Kaufman DG, Lowe JC. Management of prostatic abscess in patients with immunodeficiency syndrome. Urology. 1994;93:629–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Herard A, Brandt B, Colin J, Drancourt E, Youinou Y, Lardennois B. Prostatic abscesses : what treatment to propose? Prog Urol. 1999;9(4);767–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Crawford ED. Epidemiology of prostate cancer. Urology. 2003;62(suppl 1):3–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer Clinical Statistics. Cal J Clin. 2010;60:277–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bechis SK, Carroll PR, Cooperberg MR. Impact of age at diagnosis on prostate cancer treatment and survival. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(2):235–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cancer facts and figures,2003. Am Cancer Soc. 2003. http://www.cancer.org/down;oad.s/STT/CAFF2003PWSecured.pdf accessed on 5 February 2016.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
    Stamey TA, Donaldson AN, Yemoto CE, McNeal JE, Sozen S, Gill H. Histological and clinical findings in 896 consecutive patients treated with radical retropubic prostatectomy: epidemiologic significance of annual changes. J Urol. 1998; 160:2412–2417.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dreicer R, Garcia J. Prostate cancer. http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/hematology. Accessed 16 Maarch 2015.
  48. 48.
    Bostwick DG. High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: the most likely precursor of prostate cancer. Cancer. 1995;75:1823–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    BMJ Best Practice. Prostate cancer. http://bestpractice.bmj.com/best-practice/monograoh/254/basics/pathphysiology.html. Accessed 16 March 2015.
  50. 50.
    Oesterling JS, Jacobsen SJ, Klee GG, Pettersson K, Piironen T, Abrhamsson PA, et al. Free, complexed and total serum PSA: the establishment of appropriate range for their concentrations and ratios. J Urol 1995;154:1090–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Higashihara E, Nutahara K, Kojima M, Okegawa J, Miura A, Kao M, et al. Significance of serum free prostate specific antigen; screening of prostate cancer. J Urol. 1996,156: 1964–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hayes JH, Barry MJ. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test:a review of current evidence. JAMA. 2014;311(11):1143–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Andrology Australia. Andrology Australia statement on PSA testing for prostate cancer, May 2009.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stangelberger A, Waldert M, Djavan B. Prostate cancer in elderly men. Rev Urol 2008;10(2):111–11960.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ilic D, Neuberger MM, Djulbegovic M, Dahm P. Screening for prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Jan 31, 1:CD004720.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004720pub3.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Epstein JI. An update of the Gleason grading system. J Urol. 2010;183(2):433–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dong F, Wang C, Farris AR, Wu S, Lee H, Olumi AF, et al. Impact on the clinical outcome of prostate cancer by the International Society of Urological Pathology modified Gleason grading system. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:838–843.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Carter HB, Partin AW, Walsh PC, Trock BJ, Veltri RW, Nelson WG, et al. Gleason Score 6 Adenocarcinoma: Should it be labelled as cancer? J Clin Urol. 2012;30:4294–4296.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Albertsen PC, Hanley JA, Barrows GH, Penson DF, Kowalczyk PDH, Sanders MM, et al. Prostate cancer and the Will Rogers phenomenon. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:1248–1253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Billis A, Guimaraes MS, Freitas LC, Meirelles L, Magna LA, Ferreira U. The impact of the 2005 International Society of International Pathology consensus conference on standard Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma in needle biopsies.J Urol. 2008;180(2):548–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Spleight JL, Roach M. New techniques and increasing options for localized prostate cancer. Rev Urol. 2006;8(suppl2):S22–S29.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hall WH, Jani AB, Ryu JK, Narayan S, Vijayakumar S. The impact of age and comorbidity on survival outcomes and treatment patterns in prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2005;8:22–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tay KJ, Moul JVV, Armstrong AJ. Management of prostate cancer in the elderly. Clin Geriatr Med. 2016;32(1):113–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Solichova D, Melochar B, Blah V, Klejna M, Vavrova J, Palicka V, et al. Biochemical profile and survival in nonagenarians. Clin Biochem. 2001; 34;563–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chiumento C, Fiorentino A, Cozzolino M, Caivano R, Clemente S, Pedicini P, et al. Impact of comorbidity in elderly prostate cancer patients with brachytherapy. Chin J Cancer Res. 2013;25(3):274–280.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Conwel Y, Forbes NT, Cox C, Caine ED. Validation of a measure of physical illness burden at autopsy. The Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993;41:38–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Meyer JP, Gillatt DA, Lockyer R, Macdonagh R. The effect of erectile dysfunction on the quality of life of men after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int 2003;92(9):929–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

Personalised recommendations