Acute Kidney Injury

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


The term acute kidney injury (AKI) had been proposed to embrace the entire spectrum of syndrome from minimal changes in renal function to the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). The elderly are susceptible to AKI due to a number of factors such as structural and functional changes due to ageing; functional impairment of kidneys secondary to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure and arteriosclerosis, increased susceptibility to nephrotoxins, dehydration and alterations in drug metabolism and clearance associated with ageing. The prognosis is dependent on a number of factors such as type, cause, severity, other disease processes among others. The review provides an overview of acute kidney injury, prevalence and mechanisms followed by clinical management.


Acute kidney injury RIFLE classification Nephrotoxins Dehydration Renal replacement therapy Acute tubular necrosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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