Chronic Kidney Disease in the Elderly

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a gradual and progressive loss of renal function resulting in permanent renal failure. The review provides an overview of chronic kidney disease, the clinical manifestations, complications and clinical management. CKD is a progressive disease. Hypertension, intraglomerular pressure, proteinuria and renal damage are interrelated in the background of CKD progression. Renal failure is assessed by the GFR as serum creatinine is a poor indicator of renal failure and one of the reasons being creatinine production is related to the muscle mass. In the elderly, nephrosclerosis, diabetes, obstructive uropathy, polycystic disease and glomerular disease cause renal failure. Chronic renal disease is a significant problem in the elderly and is associated with a high risk of renal failure and death. The aim of treatment is to control symptoms, reduce complications and slow the progression of the disease. Important diagnostic considerations are exclusion of potentially reversible causes such as urinary tract obstruction, the use of nephrotoxic agents and renal artery occlusion. Patients with CKD have a greater risk of dying of cardiovascular disease than progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and there is a close relationship between heart failure and CKD.


Chronic kidney disease End-stage renal disease Cockcroft–Gault formula MDRD eGFR Haemodialysis Transplantation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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