Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are at high risk of developing HCC. Risk factors for developing HCC include dietary aflatoxin (AFB1) ingestion, chronic alcoholism, chronic hepatitis virus (HBV, HCV) infections and hereditary conditions such as hereditary hemochromatosis. Hepatic carcinogenesis is a complex process and is associated with genetic and epigenetic changes, and different genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis.


Hepatocellular carcinoma Aflatoxin Hereditary hemochromatosis Cirrhosis of the liver 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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