Viral Hepatitis in the Elderly

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


Viral hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by six viruses, called hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G. The review provides an overview of viral hepatitis, prevalence with the main focus on their effects and/or adverse effects. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has a worldwide distribution and is related to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the region. Hepatitis B is of worldwide concern, is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and is highly infectious. Chronic hepatitis B usually occurs in people who have been infected at an early age. Hepatitis C has been the most frequent cause of acute hepatitis in older people. Most of the elderly with chronic hepatitis C virus infection have acquired the disease earlier in life, and they will present with complications of liver disease mainly cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. About 5% of HBV carriers are anti-HDV positive worldwide. Hepatitis G is often found as a co-infection with other viruses, the hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).


Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis G 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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