The Oesophagus and Oesophageal Disorders

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


The three main symptoms of oesophageal disease or disorder are dysphagia, noncardiac chest pain and heartburn. Oropharyngeal dysphagia and oesophageal dysphagia often present as a symptom of a larger disease process and are a secondary diagnosis. Stroke is a leading cause of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Oesophageal dysphagia is caused by disordered motility or is a result of obstruction to the passage of the food bolus through the oesophagus to the stomach. Oesophageal dysphagia is basically due to either motility disorders (primary or secondary) or to mechanical obstruction (intrinsic or extrinsic). The prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) increases with age and the elderly are more likely to develop severe disease. The greatest concern with GORD is the development of complications. Barrett’s oesophagus is common in the middle-aged and the elderly. The primary goal in the management of GORD is to promote the healing of the damaged oesophagus, by suppression of acid secretion, alleviating the symptoms, and preventing complications. The review summarises the main group of oesophageal disorders with the main focus on their effects and/or adverse effects.


Oropharyngeal dysphagia Oesophageal dysphagia Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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