Longitudinal data, a common data type in the biomedical area, refer to the data where each participant has repeatedly measured values on the same variable at two or more time points. Time series data have more time points for each participant, (e.g., hourly, daily, weekly and monthly, etc.) compared to regular longitudinal data. Data streams refer to the real-time (on-the-fly) millisecond data for each participant generated from wireless biomedical devices such as sensors. Broadly speaking, time series and data streams are all longitudinal data with the difference in the frequency of time points when collecting data for each participant.