Encyclopedia of Wireless Networks

Living Edition
| Editors: Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, Xiaodong Lin, Kuan Zhang

Millimeter Wave Beam Training and Tracking

  • Yongming Huang
  • Jianjun Zhang
  • Cheng Zhang
  • Ming Xiao
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32903-1_112-1



Beam training is the search procedure that the transmitter and/or the receiver selects one or multiple beams from its beam training codebook (a set of predefined beams), so as to achieve the necessary link budget for subsequent communications via transmitting or receiving signals with these beams. Beam tracking is the adjustment procedure that the transmitter and/or the receiver adjusts its beams to guarantee the link stability for time-varying propagation environment. Beam training and tracking are usually used in the millimeter wave communications to combat the severe path-loss of signal propagation and the user mobility, respectively.

Historical Background

Millimeter wave (mmwave) communications operating in the band of 30–300 GHz has attracted much attention recently and also been recognized as a promising technology for future mobile networks, owing to its abundant spectrum resources (Xiao et al. 2017). However,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Alkhateeb A, El Ayach O, Leus G, Heath R (2014) Channel estimation and hybrid precoding for millimeter wave cellular systems. IEEE J Sel Top Sign Process 8(5):831–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Heath RW, Gonza’lez-Prelcic N, Rangan S, Roh W, Sayeed AM (2016) An overview of signal processing techniques for millimeter wave mimo systems. IEEE J Sel Top Sign Process 10(3):436–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hur S, Kim T, Love D, Krogmeier J, Thomas T, Ghosh A (2013) Millimeter wave beamforming for wireless backhaul and access in small cell networks. IEEE Trans Commun 61(10):4391–4403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jayaprakasam S, Ma X, Choi JW, Kim S (2017) Robust beam-tracking for mmwave mobile communications. IEEE Commun Lett 21(12):2654–2657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kim J, Lee I (2015) 802.11 wlan: history and new enabling mimo techniques for next generation standards. IEEE Commun Mag 53(3):134–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kokshoorn M, Chen H, Wang P, Li Y, Vucetic B (2017) Millimeter wave mimo channel estimation using overlapped beam patterns and rate adaptation. IEEE Trans Signal Process 65(3):601–616MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Tsang YM, Poon ASY, Addepalli S (2011) Coding the beams: improving beamforming training in mmwave communication system. In: 2011 IEEE global telecommunications conference – GLOBECOM 2011, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  8. Va V, Vikalo H, Heath RW (2016) Beam tracking for mobile millimeter wave communication systems. In: 2016 IEEE global conference on signal and information processing (GlobalSIP), pp 743–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Wang J, Lan Z, Pyo C-W, Baykas T, Sum C-S, Rahman M, Gao J, Funada R, Kojima F, Harada H, Kato S (2009) Beam codebook based beamforming protocol for multi-Gbps millimeter-wave WPAN systems. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 27(8):1390–1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Xiao Z, He T, Xia P, Xia XG (2016) Hierarchical codebook design for beamforming training in millimeter-wave communication. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 15(5):3380–3392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Xiao M, Mumtaz S, Huang Y, Dai L, Li Y, Matthaiou M, Karagiannidis GK, Bjo¨rnson E, Yang K, Chih-Lin I, Ghosh A (2017) Millimeter wave communications for future mobile networks. IEEE J Sel Top Sign Process 35(9):1909–1935Google Scholar
  12. Zhang C, Guo D, Fan P (2016) Tracking angles of departure and arrival in a mobile millimeter wave channel. In: 2016 IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  13. Zhang J, Huang Y, Shi Q, Wang J, Yang L (2017a) Codebook design for beam alignment in millimeter wave communication systems. IEEE Trans Commun 65(11):4980–4955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Zhang J, Huang Y, Zhang C, He S, Xiao M, Yang L (2017b) Cooperative multi-subarray beam training in millimeter wave communication systems. In: GLOBECOM 2017–2017 IEEE global communications conference, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  15. Zhang C, Jing Y, Huang Y, Yang L (2018) Interleaved training and training-based transmission design for hybrid massive antenna downlink. IEEE J Sel Top Sign Process 12(2):541–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongming Huang
    • 1
  • Jianjun Zhang
    • 1
  • Cheng Zhang
    • 1
  • Ming Xiao
    • 2
  1. 1.Southeast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ming Xiao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information Science and Engineering, EECSRoyal Institute of Technology, KTHStockholmSweden