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Nanoparticles and Metal Foam in Thermal Control and Storage by Phase Change Materials

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Abstract

The solid-liquid phase change process realizes a buffer system to adsorb and then release heat loads. This property can be used in thermal control and in thermal energy storage. In the first case, it allows to have an assigned temperature range where the system works and to reject high heat loads, mainly when they are intermittent. In the second case, it is used to obtain a constant supply compared to a continuous variation of the consumption demand which leads to waste of excess energy. The phase change materials (PCMs) are materials employed for solid-liquid phase change process. They present many advantages such as stability and high stored energy density. Nevertheless, the main drawback of these materials is the small value of the thermal conductivity, and it necessitates a long time for melting and implicates a broad difference of temperature in the system between the solid zone and liquid zone. To overcome this drawback, improvement techniques are implemented to optimize the system like the inserting of metal foam or the addition of highly conductive nanoparticles. The new material created with nanoparticles in the base PCM is called nano-PCM. In the present chapter, the study of these systems will be analyzed numerically after a review of current literature. The governing equation models will be described in the cases of base PCM, nano-PCM, PCM, and nano-PCM in metal foam. Some results related to the main applications of the different systems will be provided in order to underline their advantages and disadvantages.

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Correspondence to Bernardo Buonomo .

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Nomenclature

Nomenclature

a Coefficient term Eq. 33
Amush Mushy zone costant kgm−3 s−1
b Parameter term Eq. 33
c Specific heat Jkg−1 K−1
CF Inertial drag factor
df Ligament diameter m
dp Pore diameter m
E Specific enthalpy Jkg−1
Fo Fourier number \( \frac{kt^2}{\rho {c}_p{L}_R^2} \)
\( \overrightarrow{g} \) Gravity acceleration ms−2
h Sensible enthalpy J
hsf Local heat transfer coefficient Wm−2 K−1
H Enthalpy J
ΔH Latent heat content Jkg−1
HL Latent Heat of material Jkg−1
k Thermal conductivity Wm−1 K−1
K Permeability m2
Nui,d Interstitial Nusselt number \( \frac{h_{sf}{d}_f}{k} \)
p Relative pressure Pa
Pr Prandtl number \( \frac{\mu {c}_p}{k} \)
q Performance parameter \( \frac{E_t-{E}_{t-\Delta t}}{H_L} \)
Ra Rayleigh number \( \frac{\rho^2{c}_p g\beta \Delta {TL}_R^3}{\mu k} \)
Red Ligament Reynolds number \( \frac{\rho {Vd}_f}{\mu} \)
Ste Stefan number \( \frac{c_p\Delta T}{H_L} \)
\( \overrightarrow{S} \) Source term Eq. 2
T Temperature K
Tsolidus Solidus temperature K
Tliquidus Liquidus temperature K
V,\( \overrightarrow{V} \) Velocity, velocity vector ms−1

1.1 Greek Symbols

αsf Surface Area density m−1
β Liquid fraction
γ Thermal expansion coefficient K−1
ε Porosity
η Dimensionless coordinate x/LR
μ Viscosity of material kgm−1 s−1
ξ Dimensionless coordinate y/LR
ρ Density kgm−3
ω Pore size Pore per Inch (PPI)
ψ Volume fraction of nano-PCM

1.2 Subscripts

0 Operating
eff Effective
m Metal foam
nanoparticles Nanoparticle
nanopcm Nano-PCM
pcm Phase change material
t Time
1-t Time step

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Buonomo, B., Ercole, D., Manca, O., Nardini, S. (2017). Nanoparticles and Metal Foam in Thermal Control and Storage by Phase Change Materials. In: Kulacki, F. (eds) Handbook of Thermal Science and Engineering. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32003-8_39-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32003-8_39-1

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  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-32003-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-32003-8

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