Census Bureau (U.S.)
The United States Bureau of the Census (hereafter Census Bureau) is a federal agency that produces big data that is of direct value and which also provides the foundation for analyses of other big data sources. They also produce information critical for geographic information systems in the United States.
The Census Bureau is mandated by Article I, Section II of the US Constitution to enumerate the population of the United States to allow the proper allocation of members of the House of Representatives to each state. This census was first held in 1790 and then every 10 years afterwards. Full data from the census is released 72 years after the census was held. With careful linking across multiple censuses, researchers can track individuals such as Civil War veterans (Costa et al. 2017) across their full lifespan, or measure demographic changes in narrowly defined geographic regions, such as marriage rates during the boll weevil epidemic of the early 1900s (Bloome et al. 2017).
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