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Patterns of Democracies and Participatory Developments – A Matter of Path Dependency?

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Consensus democracy; Democratic progress; Democratization; Majoritarian democracy; Participation; Participatory innovations; Trajectories


Patterns of Democracies refers to Lijpart’s seminal book, in which he identifies two different models of democracy, i.e., consensus and majoritarian democracy. In the majoritarian model, political power is concentrated, whereas, in the consensus model, power is shared, dispersed, and limited in a variety of ways.

Participatory Developments are defined as instruments and procedures implemented to increase and deepen citizens’ involvement in political will-formation and decision-making.

Path Dependency is a concept, which assumes that decisions today can only be understood in light of existing institutions. Path dependency insinuates that institutions change within the frame set by already existing institutions, i.e., that they follow a certain predetermined path.


Democracy is a dynamic, protean concept and a...


  • Participatory Development
  • Democratic Direction
  • Consensus Democracy
  • Majoritarian Democracy
  • Majoritarian Model

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Correspondence to Brigitte Geissel .

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Geissel, B., Michels, A. (2018). Patterns of Democracies and Participatory Developments – A Matter of Path Dependency?. In: Farazmand, A. (eds) Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. Springer, Cham.

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  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-31816-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-31816-5

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