Palliative Care Education: An Overview
- 1k Downloads
Education has been a core function of all practitioners in palliative care since the birth of the modern hospice movement. Much progress has been made since palliative medicine was first recognized as a discrete medical specialty. In order to understand the complexities of education in this area, this chapter provides a broad overview of issues related to palliative care education from undergraduate students to continuing and postgraduate training and to the needs of family carers and staff who work in residential aged care facilities.
The chapter initially outlines some of the principles of adult education by drawing on the work of several key theorists and then discusses the sociopolitical context of palliative and end-of-life care with due consideration to the changing needs of society. Evidence of progress in undergraduate and continuing education is presented and discussed as well as opportunities for advanced specialty training.
The learning needs of family carers and staff who work in residential aged care facilities are addressed with examples of the types of education and training that is available for these essential providers of palliative care and whose needs are often overlooked in traditional educational settings.
Finally, we provide examples of the many and varied educational methods that are currently in use including simulation, interprofessional education, and learning in the clinical setting.
- Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland. Curriculum for undergraduate medical education. Liverpool: APM; 2014.Google Scholar
- Barr H. Interprofessional education: today, yesterday & tomorrow. London: Learning & Support Network Centre for Health Sciences & Practice; 2002.Google Scholar
- Bucher JA, Loscalzo M, Zabora J, Houts PS, Hooker C, BrintzenhofeSzoc K. Problem-solving cancer care education for patients and caregivers. Cancer Pract. 2001;9:66–70. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-5394.2001.009002066.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ellman MS, Schullman-Green D, Blatt L, Asher S, Viveiros D, Clark J, Bia M. Using online learning and interactive simulation to teach spiritual and cultural aspects of palliative care to interprofessional students. J Palliat Med. 2012;15(11):1240–7. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.20121.0038.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Forbat L, Robinson R, Bilton-Simek R, Francois K, Lewis M, Haraldsdottir E. Distance education methods are useful for delivering education to palliative caregivers: a single arm trial of an education package (Palliative Caregivers Education Package). Palliat Med. 2018;32(2):581–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gamondi C, Larkin P, Payne S. Core competencies in palliative care: an EAPC white paper on palliative care education. Eur J Palliat Care. 2013;20(2):86–145.Google Scholar
- General Medical Council. Tomorrow’s doctors: outcomes and standards for undergraduate medical education. London: GMC; 2009.Google Scholar
- Learning Essential Approaches to Palliative Care. http://pallium.ca/courses/leap-core/. Accessed 26 Mar 2018.
- https://www.cpd.utoronto.ca/endoflife/default.htm. Accessed 26 Mar 2018.Google Scholar
- Joint Committee on Higher Medical Training. Curriculum for higher specialist training in palliative medicine. London: Royal College of Physicians; 1998.Google Scholar
- MacLeod R, Schumacher M. Providing palliative care in elderly care settings in New Zealand. Eur J Palliat Care. 2015;22(6):296–8.Google Scholar
- Nursing Council of New Zealand [Internet]. Wellington. Approved professional development and recognition programmes (PDRPs). 2018. (Cited Mar 26]; [one screen]. Wellington, New Zealand, Available from http://www.nursingcouncil.org.nz/Nurses/PDRPs.
- Relf M, Heath B. Experiential workshops. In: Wee B, Hughes N, editors. Education in palliative care – building a culture of learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
- Schön D. The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books; 1983.Google Scholar
- Schön D. Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1987.Google Scholar
- Selman LE, Brighton LJ, Hawkins A, McDonald C, O’Brien S, Robinson V, Khan SA, George R, Ramsenthaler C, Higginson I, Koffman J. The effect of communication skills training for generalist palliative care providers on patient-reported outcomes and clinician behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2017;54(3):404–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smith MB, Macieira TGR, Bumbach MD, Garbutt DNP, Citty SW, Stephen A, Ansell M, Glover TL, Keenan G. The use of simulation to teach nursing students and clinicians palliative care and end of life communication: a systematic review. Am J Hosp Palliat Med. 2018:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049909118761386. [Internet]. [Cited 19 Mar 2018]. Available from journals.sagepub.com
- The Economist Intelligence Unit. The 2015 quality of death index: ranking palliative care across the world. London: The Economist Intelligence Unit; 2015.Google Scholar
- Walker S, Gibbins J, Barclay S, Adams A, Paes P, Chandratilake M, et al. Progress and divergence in palliative care education for medical students: a comparative survey of UK course structure, content, delivery, contact with patients and assessment of learning. Palliat Med. 2016;30(9):834–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wenger E. Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
- World Health Organisation, Health Professions Network Nursing and Midwifery Office: Department of Human Resources for Health. Framework for action on interprofessional education & collaborative practice (WHO/HRH/HPN/10.3). Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2010.Google Scholar
- World Palliative Care Alliance. Global atlas of palliative care. London: World Hospice and Palliative Care Alliance; 2014.Google Scholar