Sources of Futures Studies from Foresight to Anticipation
The essentials of futures studies are introduced for graduate level researchers who want to begin and to pursue a career in futures studies and anticipation. It is shown that in consecutive waves, human time consciousness has evolved from prediction to forecast to foresight and eventually to anticipation and shaping the future. Also classic works in the literature, which are essential reading for a graduate level beginner, are briefly reviewed. Pluralism with respect to theories of knowledge sheds light on the assumptions, values, and boundaries among diverse epistemological traditions. Key applied futures studies and foresight practices also give useful learning examples from national to global spaces about the benchmark of quality futures work. Recognized learning options and active peer-reviewed journals are also discussed. Finally an emphasis is put on the importance of joining professional membership organizations as an essential next step because scholars, researchers, consultants, and practitioners of futures studies gather and network for the exchange of ideas and further maturity.
KeywordsAnticipation Foresight Theory of knowledge Futures studies Post-formal education Applied Epistemological pluralism Integral futures Post normal Planetary studies
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