Mathematical Foundations of Anticipatory Systems

  • A. H. LouieEmail author
Living reference work entry


A natural system is an anticipatory system if it contains an internal predictive model of itself and its environment, and in accordance with the model’s predictions, antecedent actions are taken. An organism is the very example of an anticipatory system. Deep system-theoretic homologies allow the possibility of obtaining insights into anticipatory processes in the human and social sciences from the understanding of biological anticipation. To this end, a comprehensive theory of anticipatory systems is the means. The present chapter is an exposition on the mathematical foundations of such a theory.


Robert Rosen Relational biology Anticipatory system Modelling relation Encoding Decoding Causality Inference Commutativity Category theory Functor Simulation Model Analogue Conjugacy Surrogacy Internal predictive model Antecedent actions Transducer Feedforth 



I began writing this chapter when I was a resident Fellow at the Stellenbosch Institiute for Advanced Study (stiαs), South Africa, in February-April 2016. I thank stiαs for its hospitality and my contemporary Fellows for their engaging dialogues.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OttawaCanada
  2. 2.Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study (stiαs), Wallenberg Research Centre at Stellenbosch UniversityStellenbosch 7600South Africa

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