miRNAs and their Role in the Pathogenesis of Celiac Disease: A Review

Living reference work entry

Abstract

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder, mainly affecting the intestine, triggered by gluten exposure and the passage of its peptides through the gastrointestinal barrier in individuals with a specific genetic background.

Although numerous studies have unraveled a lot of the steps involved in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, there are still questions that remain only partially elucidated, in particular regarding the role of noncoding RNAs.

This chapter provides an overview of the pathogenetic processes and of the various cell types involved in celiac disease and focuses on the role of miRNAs as possible regulators of these events. Moreover, it analyzes the data obtained in the last few years, since some studies have demonstrated that miRNAs expression, either in the duodenal tissue or in the blood, differs in celiac disease patients compared to controls. Lastly, it discusses the possible role of plasmatic miRNAs as adjunct tools for diagnosis and follow-up of celiac patients.

Keywords

Celiac disease Gene expression Innate immunity Adaptive immunity Tregs Tight junctions Paneth cells NOD2 FOXP3 Circulating miRNAs 

List of Abbreviations

APC

Antigen-presenting cell

ATG7

Autophagy-related 7

BECN1

Beclin 1, autophagy related

CD

Celiac disease

CXCL2

C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2

DCs

Dendritic cells

FOXP3

Forkhead box P3

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

IEL

Intraepithelial lymphocytes

IFNγ

Interferon gamma

IL

Interleukin

IRAK

IL-1 receptor-associated kinase

KLF4

Kruppel-like factor 4

MAD2L1

Mitotic Arrest Deficient 2 Like 1

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

miRNA

Micro-RNA

NF-kB

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NK

Natural killer

NOD

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein

PPR

Pattern recognition receptor

Rho

Ras homolog

SHIP1

Src homology 2-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1

SOCS1

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

STAT

Signal transducer and activator of transcription

TG2

Transglutaminase 2

TLR

Toll-Like Receptor

TNF

Tumor Necrosis Factor

TRAF

TNF receptor-associated family

Treg

Regulatory T cells

UTR

Untranslated region

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of Milano BicoccaMonzaItaly

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