Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Pressure

  • Joshua SamuelsEmail author
  • Xamayta Negroni-Balasquide
  • Cynthia Bell
Reference work entry


While young children likely have no differences in BP related to race/ethnicity, emerging data suggest that, at least in older children, race and ethnicity may be important factors influencing blood pressure. Blood pressure in children is still assessed using normative data from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program which include adjustment for an individual’s age, gender, and height. These current blood pressure threshold values are derived from a multiethnic sample of children but do not employ ethnicity specific thresholds for childhood blood pressure. In this chapter, we review the evidence for ethnic differences in childhood blood pressure, including childhood ambulatory blood pressure, and discuss some of the potential mechanisms behind these differences.


ABPM Blood pressure Children Ethnicity Hypertension Minority Race 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joshua Samuels
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xamayta Negroni-Balasquide
    • 1
  • Cynthia Bell
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric Nephrology and HypertensionUniversity of Texas McGovern Medical School at HoustonHoustonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph T. Flynn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA

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