Herpangina (HA) is an infection of the oral mucosa caused by Coxsackieviruses. Herpangina is most frequently produced by Coxsackie virus A2, A4, A10, A16 and enterovirus 71, just as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), their predominance and prevalence varying with geographical location. Most cases of herpangina occur in the summer, affecting mostly children. However, it occasionally occurs in adolescents and adults. It begins with an acute onset of significant sore throat, dysphagia, and fever and may be accompanied by cough, rhinorrhea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia, and headache. Most cases, however, are mild or subclinical.
Hypothesis about the seasonal pattern of HA and HFMD include host immune competence fluctuations mediated by seasonal factors, such as melatonin or vitamin D levels; seasonal behavioral factors, such as school attendance and indoor crowding; environmental factors, such as temperature and relative humidity (Chang et al. 2016).
References and Further Reading
- Chang, P.-T., Chen, S.-C., & Chen, K.-T. (2016). The current status of disease caused by enterovirus 71 infections: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, and vaccine development. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 890.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar