Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an infection, caused by enterovirus (EV) or Coxsackievirus group A (CVA), most frequently CVA2, 4, 10, or 16 and EV71, just as herpangina, presenting with a skin rash and oral lesions associated with flu-like symptoms and occasionally cough, rhinorrhea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia, and headache. Oral and hand lesions are almost always present, with the oral lesions preceding the cutaneous lesions.
In the oral region 1–30 rapidly ulcerating vesicular lesions, 2–7 mm in diameter are present. On the skin, usually a few to dozens of erythematous macules developing central vesicles can be found.
Hypothesis about the seasonal pattern of HA and HFMD include host immune competence fluctuations mediated by seasonal factors, such as melatonin or vitamin D levels; seasonal behavioral factors, such as school attendance and indoor crowding; environmental factors, such as temperature and relative...
References and Further Reading
- Chang, P.-T., Chen, S.-C., & Chen, K.-T. (2016). The current status of disease caused by Enterovirus 71 infections: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, and vaccine development. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 890.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Tsao, K. C., Chang, P. Y., Ning, H. C., Sun, C. F., Lin, T. Y., Chang, L. Y., Huang, Y. C., & Shih, S. R. (2002). Use of molecular assay in diagnosis of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by Enterovirus 71 or Coxsackievirus A16. Journal of Virological Methods, 102, 9–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar