Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_662-1



Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common oral disease that may cause oral symptoms (oral burning symptoms, glossodynia, odynophagia, dysphagia, dysgeusia), lead to regional infection, and increase the risk of systemic fungal infection in the compromised host. Candida albicans is a commensal organism found in 34–68% of the normal healthy population in the gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. Normally, the oral epithelium acts as a physical barrier against Candida infection. In order to colonize the oral cavity/oropharynx, the fungus must adhere to and invade and damage the epithelial cell lining of the oral mucosa without being killed by antimicrobial host factors. Due to several local and systemic factors the local host defense is weakened predisposing to candidiasis (Table 1).
Table 1

Factors predisposing to oral candidiasis

Local factors

Wearing of oral appliances...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Budt-Jorgensen, E. (1990). Histopathology, immunology, and serology of oral yeast infections. Diagnosis of oral candidiasis. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 48, 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Holmstrup, P., & Axéll, T. (1990). Classification and clinical manifestations of oral yeast infections. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 48, 57–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Laudenbach, J. M., & Epstein, J. B. (2009). Treatment strategies for oropharyngeal candidiasis. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 10, 1413–1421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Reichart, P. A., Samaranayake, L. P., & Philipsen, H. P. (2000). Pathology and clinical correlates in oral candidiasis and its variants: A review. Oral Diseases, 6, 85–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Scully, C., El-Kabir, M., Laksman, P., & Samaranayake, P. (1994). Candida and oral candidiasis: A review. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 5, 125–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Swidergall, M., & Filler, S. G. (2017). Oropharyngeal candidiasis: Fungal invasion and epithelial cell responses. PLoS Pathogens, 13(1), e1006056.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyAntoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital/The National Cancer InstituteAmsterdamThe Netherlands