Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a malignant tumor with skeletal muscle differentiation. Four subtypes are currently recognized: embryonal, alveolar, pleomorphic, and spindle cell/sclerosing. The embryonal and the spindle cell/sclerosing subtypes are by far the most common in the urogenital tract.
RMS is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma, and approximately 10–15% of all RMSs originate in the bladder and prostate, making the genitourinary tract the second most common primary site.
RMS is a tumor of childhood and adolescence. Only rare cases have been reported in adults.
Urinary bladder RMS shows a slight male predominance.
Embryonal RMS occurs in the soft tissue of the paratesticular region, bladder, and prostate. Spindle cell RMS involves the paratesticular region, while alveolar and pleomorphic RMS are exceedingly rare in the urogenital tract.
RMS is treated...
References and Further Reading
- Fletcher, C. D., Bridge, J. A., Hogendoorn, P. C. W., & Mertens, F. (Eds.). (2013). WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. Lyon: IARC Press.Google Scholar
- Rodeberg, D. A., Anderson, J. R., Arndt, C. A., Ferrer, F. A., Raney, R. B., Jenney, M. E., Brecht, I. B., Koscielniak, E., Carli, M., Bisogno, G., Oberlin, O., Rey, A., Ullrich, F., Stevens, M. C., & Meyer, W. H. (2011). Comparison of outcomes based on treatment algorithms for rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder/prostate: Combined results from the Children’s Oncology Group, German Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study, Italian Cooperative Group, and International Society of Pediatric Oncology Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors Committee. International Journal of Cancer, 128, 1232–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seitz, G., Dantonello, T. M., Int-Veen, C., Blumenstock, G., Godzinski, J., Klingebiel, T., Schuck, A., Leuschner, I., Koscielniak, E., Fuchs, J., & CWS-96 Study Group. (2011). Treatment efficiency, outcome and surgical treatment problems in patients suffering from localized embryonal bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma: A report from the cooperative soft tissue sarcoma trial CWS-96. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 56, 718–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar