Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Apocrine Carcinoma

  • Semir VranicEmail author
  • Zoran Gatalica
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_4693-1

Synonyms

Definition

Carcinoma with apocrine differentiation (invasive apocrine carcinoma) is defined by “WHO Classification of Tumours of the Breast” as “any invasive carcinoma in which cells show the cytological features of apocrine cells” (O’Malley and Lakhani 2012). More strictly, it is a breast cancer characterized by apocrine morphology (abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm, centrally/eccentrically located nuclei with prominent nucleoli and distinct cell borders) and a distinct steroid receptor profile: Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and androgen receptor (AR)-positive cells (Vranic et al. 2013) (Fig. 1a–c).
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Costa, L. J., Justino, A., Gomes, M., Alvarenga, C. A., Gerhard, R., Vranic, S., Gatalica, Z., Machado, J. C., & Schmitt, F. (2013). Comprehensive genetic characterization of apocrine lesions of the breast. Cancer Research, 73, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gatalica, Z. (1997). Immunohistochemical analysis of apocrine breast lesions. Consistent over-expression of androgen receptor accompanied by the loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine carcinoma in situ. Pathology Research and Practice, 193, 753–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gromov, P., Espinoza, J. A., & Gromova, I. (2015). Molecular and diagnostic features of apocrine breast lesions. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, 15, 1011–1022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. O’Malley, F., & Lakhani, S. R. (2012). Carcinoma with apocrine differentiation. In S. R. Lakhani, I. O. Ellis, S. J. Schnitt, P. H. Tan, & M. J. van de Vijver (Eds.), World Health Organization classification of tumours of the breast (4th ed., pp. 53–54). Lyon: International Agency of Research and Cancer (IARC).Google Scholar
  5. Shao, M. M., Chan, S., Yu, A., Lam, C., Tsang, J., Lui, P., Law, B., Tan, P. H., & Tse, G. (2012). Keratin expression in breast cancers. Virchows Archiv, 461, 313–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Vranic, S., Gatalica, Z., Frkovic-Grazio, S., Deng, H., Lee, L. M. J., Gurjeva, O., & Wang, Z. Y. (2011). ER-α36 a novel isoform of ER-α66 is commonly over-expressed in apocrine and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 64, 54–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Vranic, S., Schmitt, F., Sapino, A., Costa, J. L., Castro, M., Reddy, S., & Gatalica, Z. (2013). Apocrine carcinoma of the breast: A comprehensive review. Histology and Histopathology, 28, 1393–1409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Vranic, S., Feldman, R., & Gatalica, Z. (2017). Apocrine carcinoma of the breast: A brief update on the molecular features and targetable biomarkers. Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 17, 9–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Zhang, N., Zhang, H., Chen, T., & Yang, Q. (2017). Dose invasive apocrine adenocarcinoma has worse prognosis than invasive ductal carcinoma of breast: Evidence from SEER database. Oncotarget, 8, 24579–24592.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Clinical Centre and School of MedicineUniversity of SarajevoSarajevoBosnia and Herzegovina
  2. 2.College of MedicineQatar UniversityDohaQatar
  3. 3.Caris Life SciencesPhoenixUSA