Living reference work entry
Carcinoma with apocrine differentiation (invasive apocrine carcinoma) is defined by “WHO Classification of Tumours of the Breast” as “any invasive carcinoma in which cells show the cytological features of apocrine cells” (O’Malley and Lakhani 2012). More strictly, it is a breast cancer characterized by apocrine morphology (abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm, centrally/eccentrically located nuclei with prominent nucleoli and distinct cell borders) and a distinct steroid receptor profile: Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and androgen receptor (AR)-positive cells (Vranic et al. 2013) (Fig. 1a–c).
- Gatalica, Z. (1997). Immunohistochemical analysis of apocrine breast lesions. Consistent over-expression of androgen receptor accompanied by the loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine carcinoma in situ. Pathology Research and Practice, 193, 753–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- O’Malley, F., & Lakhani, S. R. (2012). Carcinoma with apocrine differentiation. In S. R. Lakhani, I. O. Ellis, S. J. Schnitt, P. H. Tan, & M. J. van de Vijver (Eds.), World Health Organization classification of tumours of the breast (4th ed., pp. 53–54). Lyon: International Agency of Research and Cancer (IARC).Google Scholar
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