Liquid-State NMR in Cultural Heritage and Archaeological Sciences

  • Apostolos SpyrosEmail author
Reference work entry


Applications of liquid-state, high-resolution multinuclear 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in the fields of cultural heritage materials and archaeological organic residue analysis are described in this contribution. The research work summarized describes NMR methodologies for the characterization and chemical composition analysis of organic materials that are constituents of diverse cultural heritage specimens of interest, including museum objects and artworks, paintings, contemporary works of art constructed from modern polymeric materials, wood, resins, paint binders, waxes, and organic residues of archaeological interest in general. The analysis of the organic degradation products identified in cultural heritage objects and organic residues using NMR spectroscopy is also highlighted. Degradation and aging induces hydrolytic and oxidative chemical transformations in cultural heritage materials and organic residues. The analytical NMR characterization of degradation processes is important in understanding the state of preservation of cultural heritage objects and specimens, since it may be used to guide the selection of proper conservation and restoration treatments.


NMR spectroscopy Binders Organic residues Resin Wax Polymers Food Varnish Art Archaeology Lipids Painting Archaeometry Aging Degradation Hydrolysis Oxidation Conservation Restoration 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NMR Laboratory, Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of CreteHeraklionGreece

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