Compartment syndrome is one of the few true orthopedic emergencies. It requires a high level of clinical suspicion, particularly in the pediatric population. Compartment syndrome is defined as an increase in intracompartmental pressure leading to a decrease in perfusion pressure causing tissue hypoxemia. Inadequate treatment or the missed diagnosis of compartment syndrome can lead to significant morbidity, such as nerve dysfunction, muscle contractures, loss of limb, rhabdomyolysis, chronic pain, and even mortality. Emergent fasciotomies are indicated, and often multiple surgeries are required. Postoperative rehabilitation is of paramount importance to help regain function.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
References and Suggested Readings
Bae DS, Kadiyala K, Waters PM (2001) Acute compartment syndrome in children: contemporary diagnosis, treatment and outcome. JPO 21:680–688Google Scholar
Kanj WW, Gunderson MA, Carrigan RB, Sankar WN (2013) Acute compartment syndrome of the upper extremity in children: diagnosis, management, and outcomes. J Child Orthop 7:225–233CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
McQueen MM, Gaston P, Court-Brown CM (2000) Acute compartment syndrome. Who is at risk? J Bone Joint Surg Br 82:200–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar