• Reuel M. Bennett
  • D. Honda
  • Gordon W. BeakesEmail author
  • Marco ThinesEmail author
Reference work entry


The Straminipila are characterized by their anterior flagellum with tripartite hairs and form a well-supported monophyletic branch of the larger Straminipila/Alveolata/Rhizaria (SAR) superkingdom. This is an account of the molecular systematics and phylogeny of osmotrophic and phagotrophic lineages of the Straminipila, comprising the slime nets and their thraustochytrid allies, as well as some lesser known lineages. The phylum Labyrinthulomycota s. lat. contains two main clades, one of which approximates to holocarpic thraustochytrids and the other to the labyrinthulids and aplanochytrids. Together with the flagellate bicosoecids and the protermonads and opalinids, they form a monophyletic clade that is sister to the golden-brown algae and Oomycota. The systematics of the Labyrinthulomycota s. lat. is still in flux as recent studies employing environmental barcoding have revealed the presence of diverse lineages not branching within genera characterized in terms of their morphology. The current review deals primarily with the two major lineages of the Labyrinthulomycota s. lat. and discusses other lineages only briefly, due to the scarce knowledge about these organisms. Characteristics associated with zoosporogenesis and sexual reproduction are discussed in relation to other members of the Straminipila.


Amoebae Amphitremida Aplanochytrids Bothrosome DHA (docosahexaenoic acids) Diplophrys Eelgrass wasting disease Ecology Ectoplasmic net Labyrinthulida Marine decomposers Seagrass wasting disease Scale coats Schizochytrium Slime nets Thraustochytrida Stramenopiles Straminipila Zoospore ultrastructure 



We thank various publishers for allowing the inclusion of their illustrative material. M. Thines has been supported by the excellent initiative of the federal state of Hessen (LOEWE), in the framework of the research cluster for Integrative Fungal Research (IPF). R. M. Bennett has been supported by a fellowship from KAAD and the Studienstiftung Mykologie.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and DiversityGoethe UniversityFrankfurt am MainGermany
  2. 2.Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research CentreSenckenberg Gesellschaft für NaturforschungFrankfurt am MainGermany
  3. 3.Institute for Integrative NeurobiologyKonan UniversityKobeJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of Science and EngineeringKonan UniversityKobeJapan
  5. 5.Department of BiologySchool of Biology, Newcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  6. 6.Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, LOEWE Excellence Cluster for Integrative Fungal Research (IPF) and Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Senckenberg Gesellschaft für NaturforschungGoethe University Frankfurt am MainFrankfurt am MainGermany

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