Skip to main content

Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)




The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is an instrument for personality assessment that was developed by C. Robert Cloninger to provide a comprehensive biopsychosocial model of personality as it develops within individuals (Cloninger et al. 1993). It deconstructs personality into seven dimensions that vary widely in the general population, rather than focusing only on pathology or abnormal traits (Cloninger 2004). Nevertheless, it was designed to be equally applicable to clinical populations without being stigmatizing or pathologizing. The TCI is based on a biopsychosocial model of complex interactions among genetic, psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual constructs, rather than assuming that personality can be decomposed into independent dimensions (Cloninger and Cloninger 2011; Cloninger and Garcia 2015). The four dimensions of temperament and three dimensions of character measured by the TCI are summarized in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1
figure 1



  • Autobiographical Memory
  • Temperament Dimension
  • Biopsychosocial Model
  • Character Profile
  • Structural Neuroimaging

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  • Cloninger, C. R. (2004). Feeling good: The science of well-being. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cloninger, C. R., & Cloninger, K. M. (2011). Person-centered therapeutics. The International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, 1(1), 43–52.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cloninger, C. R., & Garcia, D. (2015). The heritability and development of positive affect and emotionality. In Genetics of psychological well-being – The role of heritability and genetics in positive psychology (pp. 97–113). New York: Oxford, University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Przybeck, T. R. (1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and gharacter. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975–990.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cloninger, C. R., Przybeck, T. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Wetzel, R. D. (1994). The temperament and character inventory (TCI): A guide to its development and use. St. Louis: Washington University Center for Psychobiology of Personality.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garcia, D., Anckarsäter, H., Kjell, O. N. E., Archer, T., Rosenberg, P., Cloninger, C. R., & Sikström, S. (2015). Agentic, communal, and spiritual traits are related to the semantic representation of written narratives of positive and negative life events. Psychology of Well-Being: Theory, Research and Practice, 5, 1–20. doi:10.1186/s13612-015-0035-x.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mousavi, F., Rozsa, S., Nilsson, T., Archer, T., Anckarsäter, H., & Garcia, D. (2015). Personality and intelligence: Persistence, not self-directedness, cooperativeness or self-transcendence, is related to twins’ cognitive abilities. Peer J, 3, e1195. doi:10.7717/peerj.1195.

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Danilo Garcia .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Section Editor information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

About this entry

Cite this entry

Garcia, D., Lester, N., Cloninger, K.M., Robert Cloninger, C. (2017). Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In: Zeigler-Hill, V., Shackelford, T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-28099-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-28099-8

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference Behavioral Science and PsychologyReference Module Humanities and Social Sciences