Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford


  • Seiichiro AmemiyaEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_785-1



Noradrenaline is an endogenous substance classified into catecholamine family.


Noradrenaline is a catecholamine produced in the body and brain and works as a neurotransmitter and hormone. It has been revealed that noradrenaline plays various roles in regulation of the body and brain and dysfunction of noradrenaline is related to multiple disorders.


Noradrenaline is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine through a series of enzymatic reactions (Daubner et al. 2011). This biosynthetic cascade begins with the hydroxylation of tyrosine into L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) by tyrosine hydroxylases, followed by the decarboxylation of L-DOPA to dopamine by dopa-decarboxylase. Beta-hydroxylase catalyzes hydroxylation of dopamine to noradrenaline.


Noradrenaline acts via adrenergic receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptor (Strosberg 1993). Noradrenergic receptors are classified into two main groups α and β. The α...


Generalize Anxiety Disorder Locus Coeruleus Panic Disorder Fearful Memory Noradrenaline Release 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Arnsten, A. F. (2009). Stress signalling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 410–422.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Berridge, C. W. (2003). The locus coeruleus–noradrenergic system: Modulation of behavioral state and state-dependent cognitive processes. Brain Research Reviews, 42, 33–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Daubner, S. C., Le, T., & Wang, S. (2011). Tyrosine hydroxylase and regulation of dopamine synthesis. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 508, 1–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ferry, B., Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J. L. (1999). Role of norepinephrine in mediating stress hormone regulation of long-term memory storage: A critical involvement of the amygdala. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1140–1152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. McCorry, L. K. (2007). Physiology of the autonomic nervous system. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71, 78.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Moret, C., & Briley, M. (2011). The importance of norepinephrine in depression. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 9–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Sara, S. J. (2009). The locus coeruleus and noradrenergic modulation of cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 211–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Strosberg, A. D. (1993). Structure, function, and regulation of adrenergic receptors. Protein Sci Publ Protein Soc, 2, 1198–1209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Sullivan, G. M., Coplan, J. D., Kent, J. M., & Gorman, J. M. (1999). The noradrenergic system in pathological anxiety: A focus on panic with relevance to generalized anxiety and phobias. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1205–1218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ulrich-Lai, Y. M., & Herman, J. P. (2009). Neural regulation of endocrine and autonomic stress responses. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 397–409.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Julie Schermer
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of Western OntarioLondonCanada