Noradrenaline is an endogenous substance classified into catecholamine family.
Noradrenaline is a catecholamine produced in the body and brain and works as a neurotransmitter and hormone. It has been revealed that noradrenaline plays various roles in regulation of the body and brain and dysfunction of noradrenaline is related to multiple disorders.
Noradrenaline is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine through a series of enzymatic reactions (Daubner et al. 2011). This biosynthetic cascade begins with the hydroxylation of tyrosine into L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) by tyrosine hydroxylases, followed by the decarboxylation of L-DOPA to dopamine by dopa-decarboxylase. Beta-hydroxylase catalyzes hydroxylation of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Noradrenaline acts via adrenergic receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptor (Strosberg 1993). Noradrenergic receptors are classified into two main groups α and β. The α...