Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Noradrenaline

  • Seiichiro AmemiyaEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_785-1

Synonyms

Definition

Noradrenaline is an endogenous substance classified into catecholamine family.

Introduction

Noradrenaline is a catecholamine produced in the body and brain and works as a neurotransmitter and hormone. It has been revealed that noradrenaline plays various roles in regulation of the body and brain and dysfunction of noradrenaline is related to multiple disorders.

Synthesis

Noradrenaline is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine through a series of enzymatic reactions (Daubner et al. 2011). This biosynthetic cascade begins with the hydroxylation of tyrosine into L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) by tyrosine hydroxylases, followed by the decarboxylation of L-DOPA to dopamine by dopa-decarboxylase. Beta-hydroxylase catalyzes hydroxylation of dopamine to noradrenaline.

Receptors

Noradrenaline acts via adrenergic receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptor (Strosberg 1993). Noradrenergic receptors are classified into two main groups α and β. The α...

Keywords

Generalize Anxiety Disorder Locus Coeruleus Panic Disorder Fearful Memory Noradrenaline Release 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Julie Schermer
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of Western OntarioLondonCanada