Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

  • Liza Rimsky
  • Nicole M. Cain
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_627-1

Synonyms

Definition

Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is characterized by a pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities. Diagnostic criteria include odd beliefs or magical thinking, such as beliefs in clairvoyance or telepathy, unusual perceptual experiences, and a lack of close friends outside of first-degree relatives.

Introduction

Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a mental disorder consisting of persistent social difficulty, reduced capacity for close relationships, and cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities. Estimates suggest a prevalence rate of approximately 0–2% of clinical populations and 4% of the general population (American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2013). SPD may first be apparent in childhood, as evidenced by extreme social anxiety, hypersensitivity, being teased for oddness, and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appels, M. C. M., Sitskoorn, M. M., Vollema, M. G., & Kahn, R. S. (2004). Elevated levels of schizotypal features in parents of patients with a family history of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(4), 781–790.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, J. S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  4. Berenbaum, H., Thompson, R. J., Milanak, M. E., Boden, M. T., & Bredemeier, K. (2008). Psychological trauma and schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(3), 502–519.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergman, A. J., Harvey, P. D., Mitropoulou, V., Aronson, A., Marder, D., Silverman, J., … Siever, L. J. (1996). The factor structure of schizotypal symptoms in a clinical population. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 22(3), 501–509.Google Scholar
  6. Castonguay, L. G., & Oltmans, T. F. (2013). Psychopathology: From science to clinical practice. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Chemerenski, E., Triebwasser, J., Roussos, P., & Siever, L. J. (2013). Schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 27(5), 652–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frances, A. (1985). Validating schizotypal personality disorders: Problems with the schizophrenia connection. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 11(4), 595–597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Jahshan, C. S., & Sergi, M. J. (2007). Theory of mind, neurocognition, and functional status in schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research, 89, 278–286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kendler, K. S. (1985). Diagnostic approaches to schizotypal personality disorder: A historical perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 11(4), 538–553.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Koenigsberg, H. W., Reynolds, D., Goodman, M., New, A. S., Mitropoulou, V., Trestman, R. L., … Siever, L. J. (2003). Risperidone in the treatment of schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64(6), 628–634.Google Scholar
  12. Lener, M. S., Wong, E., Tang, C. Y., Byne, W., Goldstein, K. E., Blair, N. J. … Hazlett, E. A. (2015). White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41(1), 300–310.Google Scholar
  13. McClure, M. M., Harvey, P. D., Bowie, C. R., Iacoviello, B., & Siever, L. J. (2013). Functional outcomes, functional capacity, and cognitive impairments in schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 144, 146–150.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. McWilliams, N. (2011). Psychoanalytic diagnosis: Understanding personality structure in the clinical process (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Powers, A. D., Thomas, K. M., Ressler, K. J., & Bradley, B. (2011). The differential effects of child abuse and PTSD on schizotypal personality disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52(4), 438–445.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Pulay, A. J., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Goldstein, R. B., Chou, P., Huang, B., … Grant, B. F. (2009). Prevalence, correlates, disability and comorbidity of DSM-IV schizotypal personality disorder: Results from the wave 2 national epidemiological survey of alcohol or related conditions. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 11(2), 53–67.Google Scholar
  17. Reynolds, C. A., Raine, A., Mellingen, K., Venables, P. H., & Mednick, S. A. (2000). Three-factor model of schizotypal personality: Invariance across culture, gender, religious affiliation, family adversity, and psychopathology. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26(3), 603–618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ripoll, L. H., Zaki, J., Perez-Rodriguez, M. M., Snyder, R., Strike, K. S., Boussi, A., … New, S. (2013). Empathic accuracy and cognition in schizotypal personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, 210, 232–241.Google Scholar
  19. Ripoll, L.H., Treibwasser, J., & Siever, L.J. (2011). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy for personality disorders. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 14(9), 1257–1288.Google Scholar
  20. Rosell, D. R., Futterman, S. E., McMaster, A., & Siever, L. J. (2014). Schizotypal personality disorder: A current review. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16(7), 452.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Siever, L. J., & Davis, K. L. (2004). The pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorders: Perspectives from the spectrum. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 398–413.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Siever, L. J., Koenigsberg, H. W., Harvey, P., Mitropoulou, V., Laruelle, M., Abi-Dargham, A., Goodman, M., & Buschbaum, M. (2002). Cognitive and brain function in schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 54(1–2), 157–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., McGlash, T. H., Dyck, I. R., Stout, R. L., Bender, D. S., … Oldham J. M. (2002). Functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 276–283.Google Scholar
  24. Stone, M. (1985). Schizotypal personality: Psychotherapeutic aspects. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 11, 576–589.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Trestman, R. L., Keefe, R. S. E., Mitropoulou, V., Harvey, P. D., de Vegvar, M. L., Lees-Roitman, S., … Siever, L. J. (1995). Cognitive function and biological correlates of cognitive performance in schizotypal personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, 59, 127–136.Google Scholar
  26. Waldeck, T. L., & Miller, L. S. (2000). Social skills deficits in schizotypal personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, 93, 237–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Widiger, T. A., & Frances, A. (1985). Axis II personality disorders: Diagnostic and treatment issues. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 36(6), 619–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Yen, S., Shea, M. T., Battle, C. L., Johnson, D. M., Zlotnick, C., Dolan-Sewell, R., … McGlashan, T. H. (2002). Traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: Findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190(8), 510–518.Google Scholar
  29. Zouraraki, C., Karagiannopoulou, L., Karamaouna, P., & Giakoumaki, S. G. (2015). Schizotypal traits in unaffected relatives of patients in the schizophrenia spectrum. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 12, 189–204.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Long Island UniversityBrooklynUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kevin Meehan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLong Island UniversityBrooklynUSA