Living Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

pp 1-5

Date: Latest Version

Personality Pattern Inventory

  • Michael B. GilbertAffiliated withDepartment of Educational Leadership (Emeritus), Central Michigan University Email author 
  • , Ryan A. DonlanAffiliated withDepartment of Educational Leadership, Indiana State University,


The Personality Pattern Inventory® (PPI) (Kahler 1982, 1996) is a personality assessment instrument designed to provide information regarding individual choices from which specific communication, interaction, and motivational preferences can be determined.


In the development of the PPI, Kahler (1982) built on the work of Berne (1961, 1964), who described ego states as thoughts and feelings manifested by corresponding behavior patterns and who said we all construct a scenario for our lives in early childhood under the influence of parental messages. Berne called this scenario “script.” Kahler (1972) developed the concept of the miniscript, drawn from the results of his research into links between scripts and how they are formed. The miniscript shows how we disclose our script in the way we formulate our sentences. This is observable second by second in speech patterns and behavior. The miniscript became the basic construct of the Process Communication Model (PCM) (K ...

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