Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford


Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_567-1



“Dora” is a pseudonym given by Sigmund Freud to Ida Bauer, an 18-year-old girl whom he treated for hysteria. The analysis was brief, lasting from October to December of 1900, and was brought to an end by Bauer. Freud wrote the case from memory in January of 1901 shortly after treatment concluded. He published it as an elaborated case history in 1905. The title of the case history, “Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria,” alludes to the incomplete nature of the treatment and to Freud’s dissatisfaction with its premature termination. Dora is Freud’s first, and arguably most famous, published psychoanalytic case study; it is also his most controversial.

Background and Clinical Picture

Dora (Ida Bauer) was born in Vienna in 1882 to a middle-class Jewish family who had immigrated to Vienna from Bohemia. Dora was the younger daughter of Philipp and Katharina Bauer and had an older brother, Otto, who later became a leading member in the Austrian Social...


Dora Hysteria Ida Bauer Psychoanalytic case study Sigmund Freud 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Postdoctoral Program in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis, New York UniversityNew YorkUSA