Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Anna O.

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_566-1

Synonyms

Definition

Anna O. is the pseudonym of a patient of Josef Breuer, a prominent Viennese internist who was a mentor to and early collaborator with Sigmund Freud. The patient, Bertha Pappenheim, was a brilliant Austrian-Jewish woman who later became a pioneer in the discipline of social work. She was diagnosed with hysteria and treated by Breuer between 1880 and 1882. The case history of the treatment, “Fräulein Anna O.,” written by Breuer, appeared as the first clinical chapter in Studies on Hysteria, published jointly by Breuer and Freud in 1895. The name Anna O. stands for the “alpha and omega of neurosis,” or as might be written today, “Neurosis from A to Z.” Breuer’s treatment of Pappenheim eventually led to a theory of hysteria, a new method of psychological treatment, and the germ of a new way of thinking about personality and the mind – Freudian (Classical) psychoanalysis – that would have a major impact on our thinking about human nature.

Anna O. and...

Keywords

Anna O. Bertha Pappenheim Catharsis Josef Breuer Sigmund Freud Hysteria Studies on hysteria The talking cure 
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References

  1. Breuer, J., & Freud, S. (1893). On the psychical mechanism of hysterical phenomena: Preliminary communication from studies on hysteria. In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. II, pp. 1–17). London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  2. Breuer, J., & Freud, S. (2009). Studies on hysteria. Basic Books Classics: New York (Original work published 1895, translated 1955).Google Scholar
  3. Ellenberger, H. F. (1972). The story of “Anna O”: A critical review with new data. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 8(3), 267–279.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Freud, S. (2008). Five lectures on psychoanalysis. BN Publishing: Thousand Oaks (Original work published 1910).Google Scholar
  5. Jones, E. (1972). Sigmund Freud life and work, volume one: The young Freud 1856–1900. London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  6. Mitchell, S. A., & Black, M. J. (1995). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Postdoctoral Program in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis, NYU, CandidateNew YorkUSA