Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Basic Emotions

  • Magda Kowalska
  • Monika WróbelEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_495-1

Synonyms

Definition

Basic emotions are hypothesized to be a special class of emotions out of which all other emotions are compounded. According to most theorists, they are innate, universal, and distinct affective states which evolved to serve adaptive functions.

Introduction

The idea that there exists a small set of “basic emotions” dates back to the works of Descartes (1649/1988) who was first to suggest that all emotional states can be derived from six fundamental “passions” (joy, sadness, love, desire, hatred, and wonder). However, the real debate on “emotional basicness” begun with the publication of Darwin’s (1872/1998) book entitled The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Darwin argued that emotions are crucial for survival and thus they have distinctive expressions that should be accurately recognized by all...

Keywords

Basic Emotions Distinctive Subjective Experience Complex Emotional States Panksepp Emotion-eliciting Stimuli 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (1994). Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature, 372, 669–672.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett, L. F. (2006). Are emotions natural kinds? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 28–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Darwin, C. (1872/1998). The expression of the emotions in man and animals (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Descartes. (1649/1988). The passions of the soul. In J. Cottingham, R. Stoothoof, & D. Murdoch (Eds.), Selected philosophical writings of René Descartes (Vol. 1, pp. 325–403). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ekman, P. (1999). Basic emotions. In T. Dalgleish & M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 45–60). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Ekman, P., & Cordaro, D. (2011). What is meant by calling emotions basic. Emotion Review, 3, 364–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, 124–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotions. Science, 164, 86–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. (2002). On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 203–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Izard, C. E. (1992). Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. Psychological Review, 99, 561–566.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Izard, C. E. (2007). Basic emotions, natural kinds, emotion schemas, and a new paradigm. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 260–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Izard, C. E. (2011). Forms and functions of emotions: Matters of emotion–cognition interactions. Emotion Review, 3, 371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. James, W. (1884). What is an emotion? Mind, 9, 188–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kreibig, S. D. (2010). Autonomic nervous system activity in emotion: A review. Biological Psychology, 84, 394–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Larsen, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Poehlmann, K. M., Ito, T. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). The psychophysiology of emotion. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. Feldman Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 180–195). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  16. Levenson, R. W. (2011). Basic emotion questions. Emotion Review, 3, 379–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Levenson, R. W. (2014). The autonomic nervous system and emotion. Emotion Review, 6, 100–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matsumoto, D., & Willingham, B. (2009). Spontaneous facial expressions of emotion of congenitally and non-congenitally blind individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oatley, K., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1987). Towards a cognitive theory of emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 1, 29–50.Google Scholar
  20. Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What’s basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97, 315–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Panksepp, J. (2007). Criteria for basic emotions: Is DISGUST a primary “emotion”? Cognition and Emotion, 21, 1819–1828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Panksepp, J. (2011). The basic emotional circuits of mammalian brains: Do animals have affective lives? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1791–1804.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Panksepp, J., & Watt, D. (2011). What is basic about basic emotions? Lasting lessons from affective neuroscience. Emotion Review, 3, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Plutchnik, R. (1980). Emotion: A psychoevolutionary synthesis. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  25. Russell, J. A. (1994). Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression? A review of the cross-cultural studies. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 102–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Russell, J. A., Rosenberg, E. L., & Lewis, M. D. (2011). Introduction to a special section on basic emotion theory. Emotion Review, 3, 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sabini, J., & Silver, M. (2005). Ekman’s basic emotions: Why not love and jealousy? Cognition and Emotion, 19, 693–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sauter, D. A., Eisner, F., Ekman, P., & Scott, S. K. (2009). Cross-cultural recognition of basic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 2408–2412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Turner, T. J., & Ortony, A. B. (1992). Basic emotions: Can conflicting criteria converge? Psychological Review, 99, 566–571.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Vytal, K., & Hamann, S. (2010). Neuroimaging support for discrete neural correlates of basic emotions: A voxel-based meta-analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 2864–2885.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of Social Sciences and HumanitiesWarszawaPoland
  2. 2.Institute of PsychologyUniversity of LodzŁódźPoland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Monika Wróbel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PsychologyUniversity of LodzLodzPoland