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International Affective Picture System


The International Affective Picture System (IAPS, pronounced “eye-apps”; Lang et al. 2008) is a set of emotionally evocative color photographs representing a wide variety of events and objects encountered in human experience that have been rated on dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance by men and women. IAPS stimuli are widely used in studies of human emotion throughout the world.


If scientists wish to study the effects of background noise on the efficiency of factory workers, noise levels are easily measured and controlled, using commonly accepted scales for determining loudness and frequency. Because these established scales are in general use, retest results can be exactly evaluated (even in another laboratory), replicating or disconfirming the original results. In the study of emotion, a similar need for calibrated stimuli exists in laboratory studies of affect. The International Affective Picture Systemis a collection of photographic scenes...


  • Arousal Rating
  • International Affective Picture System
  • Unpleasant Picture
  • Defensive System
  • Pleasant Picture

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Bradley, M.M., Lang, P.J. (2017). International Affective Picture System. In: Zeigler-Hill, V., Shackelford, T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Springer, Cham.

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