Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA)

  • Luc GoossensEmail author
  • Marlies Maes
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2294-1



The term “loneliness” refers to the negative feelings that emerge when people experience their social relationships as deficient (Perlman and Peplau 1981). The Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA; Marcoen et al. 1987) measures loneliness in two kinds of relationships, that is, relationships with parents and peers. In addition, the measure assesses two attitudes to being alone, that is, aversion to aloneness (or negative attitude to being alone) and affinity for aloneness (or positive attitude to being alone).

Theoretical Background

The LACA has been referred to as the Louvain Loneliness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LLCA) in earlier work (e.g., Marcoen et al. 1987). The instrument was developed specifically for the age range of 10–19 years. The available measures for adults were deemed too difficult in wording or seemed developmentally inappropriate. Late childhood and adolescence are crucial periods in life during which...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of School Psychology and Child and Adolescent Development (SCAD)KU Leuven – University of LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Section editors and affiliations

  • Brendan Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.Wichita State UniversityWichitaUSA